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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 201-208

Risk factors profile for noncommunicable diseases among adult urban population of puducherry in India

Department of Community Medicine, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
R C Chauhan
Department of Community Medicine, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry 605 014
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2347-9906.146796

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Introduction and Objectives: Almost two-thirds of all deaths worldwide are due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which are primarily associated with tobacco-use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity and raised blood pressure and are largely preventable. Despite the increasing burden of NCDs and their risk factors in India, information on the prevalence of preventable risk factors is restricted to some areas. This study was done to assess the prevalence and distribution of various risk factors for NCD in population of an urban area of Puducherry, in South India. Methodology: This population-based survey was conducted using the "World Health Organization step-wise approach to surveillance of NCDs" (steps) methodology. All the eligible subjects in systematic randomly selected households were interviewed. Standardized protocols were used to assess major behavioral risk factors (tobacco-use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity) and physiological risk factors (overweight, abdominal obesity and raised blood pressure) for NCDs. Means and proportions were calculated for measured variables, and Chi square test was applied to find the associations. Results: Among 569 study subjects interviewed, almost half (48%) were aged <40 years and 52% (n = 295) were men. The prevalence of various risk factors was; tobacco-use (13.4%), alcohol consumption (14.2%), physical inactivity (51.5%), unhealthy diet (86.5%), overweight (36.0%), obesity (21.3%), abdominal obesity (63.3), hypertension (25.3%) and prehypertension (47.8%). Tobacco-use and alcohol consumption was significantly more prevalent among males (p < 0.05). Almost half of the study subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: Present community-based study reveals the high burden of NCDs risk factors in urban population of Puducherry and the burden was particularly higher among males. This also reiterates the need to address these issues comprehensively as a part of NCDs prevention and control strategy. Further, multi-sectoral efforts like ban on sale or raising the tax on alcohol and tobacco products, health education and communication activities, enabling environment for people to engage in physical activities and other measures to lower the burden of NCDs risk factors in community have to be encouraged.

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