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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 228-233

Hyperuricemia: A risk factor beyond gout


1 Department of Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sujeet Raina
C-15, Type-V Quarters, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College Campus, Tanda, Kangra - 176 001, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2347-9906.170903

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A global epidemiological transition in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases is taking place due to the emergence of behavioral and metabolic risk factors. A renewed interest in the role of serum uric acid as a risk factor has been generated and a crossover from rheumatology to composite of cardiovascular disorders is taking place. Hyperuricemia (HU) is defined as serum urate level > 6.8 mg/dl that is, the limit of urate solubility at physiological temperature and pH. The prevalence of HU and its complications have increased globally in the past decades. It is an indicator of a widespread transition in lifestyle. The positive association between serum uric acid and hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, and preeclampsia has been recognized. Evidence suggests that elevated serum uric acid is strongly associated with and predictive of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The role of HU in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases involves effects on the endothelial function, oxidative metabolism, and platelet aggregation. Among the constellation of established atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors HU has an additive or synergistic impact on the outcomes. As an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and related diseases, the role of HU has been extensively debated for many years. Besides being a biomarker and risk factor, HU is also emerging a target for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In most of the patients, with asymptomatic HU, treatment is not advocated to reduce cardiovascular risk. Currently, no guidelines and recommendations have been updated in the pharmacological management of asymptomatic HU. It will be particularly important to design large, long-term studies that would determine the effects of urate-lowering therapy on cardiovascular disease.


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