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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 135-139

Urinary iodine levels, goiter rates and intelligence quotient in primary school children in Giwa Local Government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria


1 Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ogunrinde G Olufemi
Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2347-9906.162325

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Background: Iodine deficiency can cause brain damage and/or cognitive impairment in children. It is preventable and of public health concern. After sixteen years of universal salt iodization in Nigeria, we undertook this study in north-western Nigeria to determine: prevalence of iodine deficiency in school children, any relationship between iodine deficiency, goiter and intelligence quotient and iodine content of table salt from their households. Methodology: A cross-sectional study of school children aged 6-12 years. Data was collected using structured questionnaire. Enrolled children had physical examination and anthropometric measurements. Presence of goiter was clinically assessed using criteria jointly recommended by WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD. Intelligence quotient was assessed using the "Draw-A-Man" test. Specimen of urine was obtained from each child and table salt specimen from their homes. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to analyze urinary iodine in μg/L. Iodine content of salt was semi-quantitatively analyzed. Results: A total of 544 children were studied. Their mean age (±1SD) was 9.5 ± 2.0 years. Median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level was 148 μg/L. Forty-seven (8.6%) children had goiter. Three hundred and seventy- six (69.1%) children had normal body build. Of 118 (21.7%) children with adequate iodine status, 18 (15.3%) were stunted; a similar proportion in iodine deficient children. One hundred and thirty-four (57.0%) of 235 iodine-deficient children and 67 (56.8%) of 118 iodine-sufficient children had normal Intelligence Quotient. All household table salts contained iodine. Conclusion: There was no relationship between nutritional status and Iodine status; iodine status and intelligence quotient in study children.


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