|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 20-24
Prevalence of obesity and overweight in housewives and its relation with household activities and socio-economical status
Banshi Saboo1, Praful Talaviya2, Hardik Chandarana1, Smita Shah1, Chintal Vyas3, Himanshu Nayak4
1 Dia Care - Diabetes Care and Hormone Clinic, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Dia Care - Diabetes Care and Hormone Clinic, Ahmedabad, Gujarat; Department of Pharmacology, Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 NHL Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
4 AMC MET Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
|Date of Submission||09-Oct-2013|
|Date of Decision||24-Oct-2013|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Nov-2013|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Dec-2013|
Dia Care Diabetes Care and Hormone Clinic, 1 and 2 Gandhi Park, Near Nehru Nagar Cross Road, Ambavadi, Ahmedabad 380 015, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Overweight and obesity are the most prevalent nutritional disorders in developed and developing countries due to rapid urbanization. Presently, the incidence of overweight, obesity and their related co-morbidities is increasing rapidly in India. Obesity itself is not an acutely lethal disease, but is a significant risk factor associated with a range of serious non-communicable diseases. Obesity is a major player responsible for increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer and lipid disorders. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate prevalence of obesity in housewives (HWs) and its relation with household activity in Ahmedabad city, India. Participants and Methods: The house-to-house survey or interview-based study was carried out among HWs (n=200) from different areas of Ahmedabad city to evaluate the prevalence of obesity. All study participants were categorized based on their socio-economical status and divided into three groups; Group I as upper middle class (UMC), Group II as middle class (MC) and Group III as lower middle class (LMC). Further, the participants were subcategorized to evaluate age-specific prevalence of overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity were defined using body mass index criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. Participants were inquired for their daily household activity and physical activity. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity in HWs were found higher in MC group compared with UMC and LMC group. Moreover, age specific evaluation of prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be higher in age group of 30-45 years followed by other age groups (<30 years and 46-60 years). Involvements of HWs in daily household activities were observed to be higher in LMC than in MC and UMC. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in HWs belonging to MC families, which may be due low household and physical activities. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in HWs is directly proportional to reduced daily household activity and physical in activities.
Keywords: Body mass index, housewives, lower middle class, middle class, obesity, upper middle class
|How to cite this article:|
Saboo B, Talaviya P, Chandarana H, Shah S, Vyas C, Nayak H. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in housewives and its relation with household activities and socio-economical status. J Obes Metab Res 2014;1:20-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Saboo B, Talaviya P, Chandarana H, Shah S, Vyas C, Nayak H. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in housewives and its relation with household activities and socio-economical status. J Obes Metab Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Feb 15];1:20-4. Available from: http://www.jomrjournal.org/text.asp?2014/1/1/20/123872
| Introduction|| |
This has been a century of great revolution and change. In the 21 st century, changes were noted not only in the science and technology but also in the life-style of people. Changes in the life-style made life easier and marked the beginning of certain chronic ailments such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders, endocrine disorders and osteoarthritis. 
Obesity has emerged as the most prevalent serious public health problem.  It is a complex disorder, which is a detrimental to good health and well-being. Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in prosperous communities and is the result of an incorrect energy balance leading to an increased storage of energy, mainly as fat. It is the most common nutritional disorder among the higher socio-economic group in developing and developed countries. Obesity is becoming most prevalence health problem world-wide in most of the populations, affecting children, adolescents, adults and specially housewives (HWs) or women.
Obesity develops over time and, once it develops, is difficult to treat. The excess of fat in men tends to accumulate in the upper abdomen. In women, the favoured sites for the accumulation of fat are the hips, thighs and buttocks.  Accumulation of the fat at site is to be considered a predominant factor for metabolic disorders of obesity.  However, the overall incidence of obesity was found to be higher among women than men. 
The world-wide obesity problem can be viewed as a consequence of the substantial social, cultural and economical problems now observed in developing and newly industrialised countries. In India, the increased levels of obesity are primarily associated with the transformation from rural to urban life-style. However, it is evident that this phenomenon is more profound among the urban populations in comparison to the rural ones.  Regardless of its cause, obesity may be associated with a variety of risks. Obesity causes or exacerbates many health problems, both independently and in association with other diseases. It is related to the risk for developing heart diseases, non-insulin dependent diabetes and cancer.  It also creates an enormous psychological burden on individuals. Thus, obesity is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality.
Obesity is a multi-factorial phenomena and associates with age, sex, economical status, marital status, smoking, physical activity, education, ethnicity, levels of leisure time, parity, family history of obesity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. ,, In compare to men, such determinant factors of obesity were frequently accumulated in women; the findings of many studies have shown that the incidence and the prevalence of obesity in women is higher in many countries compared to men and surprisingly the ratio is higher by 10-15% in women than in men.  Number of studies revealed that the prevalence of obesity is higher in women compared to men and it's associated with socio-economical status and life-style. ,, Therefore, present study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of obesity in HWs in relation with household activity and socio-economical status in Ahmedabad city.
| Participants and Methods|| |
A house-to-house survey based observational study was carried out in from January 2013 to June 2013 at DiaCare, Ahmedabad, India to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in HWs in relation with socio-economic status and household activity. A total of 200 HWs were included in this study. Survey was conducted by using well designed questionnaire; first part of questionnaire was included to inquire age, socio-economical status and body mass index (BMI; Kg/m 2 ) and second part of questionnaire was included to inquired daily house hold activity such as cooking, cleaning of utensils, washing of clothes, floor cleaning, animals or pets care, house interior maintenance, lawn or garden care and regular exercise (walking, gym, swimming, cycling etc.).
All the participants (n=200) were divided in to three group based on their socio -economic status as given below:
- Group I as upper middle class (UMC) (n=52), family categorized as UMC if family income is >50,000 rupees/month.
- Group II as a middle class (MC) (n=71), family categorized as MC if family income is 16,000-50,000 rupees/month.
- Group III as lower middle class (LMC) (n=77), family categorized as LMC if family income is 5000-15,000 rupees/month.
Furthermore, all three groups were subcategorised to evaluate the age specific prevalence of obesity and overweight in study population.
Obesity and overweight was identified by BMI criteria recommended by World Health Organisation as follows; 
- If participant's BMI <25 kg/m 2 than participants was identified as normal.
- If participant's BMI >25-30 kg/m 2 than participants was identified as overweight.
- If participant's BMI >30 kg/m 2 than participants was identified as obese.
Overall in this study, we have compared the percentage of prevalence of obesity and overweight in HWs belongs to different socio-economical status in relation with daily household activity.
Data were analysed using the Statistical software (Prism, Version 5, Graphpad Software, Inc. CA, USA). Chi-square test was applied to perform statistical analysis and P<0.05 was considered as significant.
| Results|| |
Socio-economic categorisation and age specific distribution of study participants is shown in [Table 1]. In UMC, MC and LMC the distribution of percentage of study population were 26%, 35.5% and 38.5%, respectively. In further, the study populations were subcategorised to evaluate the percentages of age-specific prevalence of obesity and overweight in study population.
|Table 1: Socio.economic categorisation and age specific distribution of study participant (n=200)|
Click here to view
The age specific prevalence of obesity and overweight is shown in [Figure 1]. A total prevalence of obesity and overweight were found to be 22% and 16.5%, respectively. In age specific evaluation, the prevalence of obesity and overweight were founded higher in 30-45 years age group (36.6% and 22%, respectively) than in 46-60 years age group (22% and 16.5%, respectively) and then in below 30 years age group (10% and 11.5%, respectively) [Figure 1].
The prevalence of obesity and overweight in HWs belonging to different socio-economic groups are shown in [Table 2]. Overall the prevalence of obesity and overweight were found higher in MC group compared to other groups (UMC and LMC). Moreover, in all three groups the prevalence of obesity and overweight in HWs were founded almost all similar those who were below 30 years age [Table 3]. In further the age group of 46-60 years the prevalence of obesity and overweight in HWs were found higher in MC when compared to UMC and LMC. Moreover, the prevalence of obesity rate was significantly (P<0.002) higher in HWs belongs to MC.
|Figure 1. Age-specific prevalence of obesity and overweight in study population (n=200)|
Click here to view
|Table 2: Prevalence of obesity and overweight in study population belongs to different socio‑economical status|
Click here to view
Involvement of the participants in various household activities (cooking, utensil cleaning, washing clothes floor cleaning, taking care of animals and pets, lawn and garden care and interior maintenance) and exercises (such as walking, attending gym, swimming, cycling etc.,) in all 3 groups is mentioned in the [Table 3].
Involvement of HWs in daily household activities is shown in [Table 3]. Rate of household activity was found higher in LMC compared to MC and UMC. The rate of household activities was found higher in MC compared to UMC, but however the prevalence of obesity and overweight was found higher in MC. HWs in LMC were doing all household activity so very less population in this group was following exercise.
| Discussion|| |
The study included 200 HWs in different areas of Ahmedabad city to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation with household activity and socio-economic status. Based on the findings the weighted prevalence of overweight and obesity among HWs was ~ 17% and 22%, respectively.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing world-wide and this is likely to be associated with an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.  Changes in life-style, in particular a reduction in physical activity and increasing consumption of foods of high energy density are likely to account for these change.  Many of the studies revealed that the socio-economical status and life-style is directly associated with weight gain. In the present study the prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in middle income group compared to lower middle income group. Prevalence of obesity was higher in MC compared to UMC in spite of doing more household activities. HWs of UMC were founded less obese because they were using regular diet plan and exercise but they are doing less household activity compared to MC and LMC. In present study, HWs in MC group were found more obese due to less physical activity. Regular household activity can help to burn sufficient energy and help to prevent obesity in HWs.
It is necessary to maintain calorie intake and utilization it to prevent obesity. Living a sedentary life-style, women burn about 1,200-2,000 calories/day. Moderate physical activity equivalent to walking about 2.4-4.8 km/day women can burn about 1,400-2,200 calories/day. A very active lifestyle includes activity equivalent to walking more than 4 km/day women can burn about 1,800-2,400 calories/day. Due to decrease in household activity and physical activity women are lacking to burn sufficient calories and its lead to obesity. , Women can also burn calories by doing different household activities such as 15 min cooking can burn 30-35 calories, sweeping floor can burn 40-45 calories, utensils cleaning can burn 22-26 calories, animal care can burn 25-30 calories and playing with animal can burn more calories and lawn or garden care burn around 30-35 calories. Calorie burning in exercise depends on the types and duration of exercise. In the present study, we have noted that the HWs in LMC are doing all most all types of household activity so that they can burn more energy and moreover we can conclude that the more association with house hold activities can help to prevent weight gain. While comparing house hold activity between MC and UMC it was found that the HWs in MC group performed more household activities when compared to UMC, but the prevalence of obesity was found to be higher in MC group it because of the HWs in UMC are regularly following diet plan and doing proper exercise in spite of doing household activity so that the consumption of energy is higher in UMC group compared to MC. HWs in city of Ahmedabad were found to have more sedentary life-style and less physical activity.
Moreover, our study supports the statement that the reduced physical activity and excess energy intake are strongly associated with weight gain. The increased energy density of popular diets - where processed foods, snacks and sweetened drinks overcome at the expense of fresh fruit and vegetables - is playing a central role in prevalence of obesity in populations world-wide. Meanwhile, increasingly sedentary life-styles have affected most societies. A huge increase in the private ownership of motorised vehicles (automobiles, motorcycles) and pedestrian- and bicycle-unfriendly urban planning are principal factors in the recent and dramatic reduction in the distances people walk. The replacement of agricultural or industrial activities with sedentary service-sector employment and the emergence of television and computers as the most popular leisure-time activities have reduced even further the levels of physical activity world-wide. 
| Conclusion|| |
The results of present finding revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in HWs belonging to the MC family it may be due to decrease in household activity and physical activity. Moreover, results revealed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight in UMC was lower because HWs in this group is more conscious about their health and they are regularly following the diet plan and doing exercise.
| References|| |
|1.||Tiwari R, Srivastava D, Gour N. A cross-sectional study to determine prevalence of obesity in high income group colonies of Gwalior City. Indian J Community Med 2009;34:218-22. |
|2.||Roberts SB, Mayer J. Holiday weight gain: Fact or fiction. Nutr Rev 2000;58:378-9. |
|3.||Bose K. A comparative study of generalised obesity and anatomical distribution of subcutaneous fat in adult White and Pakistani migrant males in Peterborough. J R Soc Health 1995;115:90-5. |
|4.||Van Gaal L, Rillaerts E, Creten W, De Leeuw I. Relationship of body fat distribution pattern to atherogenic risk factors in NIDDM. Preliminary results. Diabetes Care 1988;11:103-6. |
|5.||Pi-Sunyer F×. Obesity. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, editors. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 9 th ed. London: Lea and Febiger; 1994. p. 984-1006. |
|6.||Venkatramana P, Reddy PC. Association of overall and abdominal obesity with coronary heart disease risk factors: Comparison between urban and rural Indian men. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002;11:66-71. |
|7.||Smith SR, Lovejoy JC, Greenway F, Ryan D, deJonge L, de la Bretonne J, et al. Contributions of total body fat, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments, and visceral adipose tissue to the metabolic complications of obesity. Metabolism 2001;50:425-35. |
|8.||Ali SM, Lindstrom M. Socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and psychological determinants of BMI among young women: Differing patterns for underweight and overweight/obesity. Eur J Public Health 2006;16:325-31. |
|9.||Ersoy C, Imamoglu S, Tuncel E, Erturk E, Ercan I. Comparison of the factors that influence obesity prevalence in three district municipalities of the same city with different socioeconomical status: A survey analysis in an urban Turkish population. Prev Med 2005;40:181-8. |
|10.||Santos AC, Barros H. Prevalence and determinants of obesity in an urban sample of Portuguese adults. Public Health 2003;117:430-7. |
|11.||Fouad M, Rastam S, Ward K, Maziak W. Prevalence of obesity and its associated factors in Aleppo, Syria. Prev Control 2006;2:85-94. |
|12.||World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation presented at: The World Health Organization; June 3-5, 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; Publication WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1. |
|13.||Poirier P, Despres JP. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Med Sci (Paris) 2003;19:943-9. |
|14.||Meshkani R, Taghikhani M, Larijani B, Khatami S, Khoshbin E, Adeli K. The relationship between homeostasis model assessment and cardiovascular risk factors in Iranian subjects with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance. Clin Chim Acta 2006;371:169-75. |
|15.||U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bethesda. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/wecan/healthy-weight-basics/balance.htm. [Updated on 2013 Feb 13; cited on 2013 Sep 25]. |
|16.||Catherine L, Helena T. Preventing obesity in women of all ages-A public health priority. Diabetes Voice 2009;54:12-4. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]